父亲打死对女儿欲行不轨的坏人犯法吗?_东方法眼 [dffyw.com]
 
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父亲打死对女儿欲行不轨的坏人犯法吗?

2012年06月25日07:17 东方法眼 王学堂
   
 

核心提示:说的是,美国德州一名23岁父亲发现47岁男子佛罗斯强奸他的5岁女儿,赤手空拳把他打死。陪审团认为他是有理由的正当杀人,因此判他无罪。

  最近微博上一则消息引发了热议。

  说的是,美国德州一名23岁父亲发现47岁男子佛罗斯强奸他的5岁女儿,赤手空拳把他打死。陪审团认为他是有理由的正当杀人,因此判他无罪。附近的居民对于陪审团的决定表示支持,并称如果同样的事情发生在他们身上,他们也会为了保护女儿而这么做。

A building near Shiner, Texas

A building near Shiner, Texas

  因为这则消息在大陆的报纸等权威媒体上没有发布,我找到了英文。

  借着我18年前的英语六级底子,大体核对了一下,应该翻译是不错的。

  许多转发者认为:在我国,这种情况往往会被认定为防卫过当,这样的悲情父亲往往有牢狱之灾。

  为了保护女儿竟然进了监狱,让人情可以堪?

  当然,也有法律界人士认为在我国这种情形也会被认定为正当防卫。

  理由自然也有:刑法第二十条第一款规定,为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成损失的,属于正当防卫。刑法第二十条第三款规定,“对正在进行的行凶、杀人、抢劫、强奸、绑架以及其他严重危及人身安全的暴力犯罪,采取防卫行为,造成不法侵害人伤亡的,不属于防卫过当,不负法律责任”。因此,这种为民除害的父亲是无罪的!

  不过,即便是最终被法院认定为正当防卫,在中国往往也会有牢狱之灾!

  因为我国司法认定正当防卫往往过于苛刻,而且对犯罪嫌疑人以关押为原则以取保为例外,待法院最终认定正当防卫,估计关押都最少要一年了!

  一个打工女,为了救助自己未来的大姑姐(后来成了她人的大姑姐)而被审判,所幸后被判无罪。对吴金艳来说,看守所中的10个月已经改变了她的命运。心爱的男友以为她这辈子不会离开监狱了,于是另娶新娘;内蒙古老家村庄里流传的是她当坐台小姐遭强奸后起意报复杀人。她的名字叫“吴金艳”。但你也可能如我一样已经忘记了她,直至读到一篇题为《杀人无罪的打工妹历尽坎坷收获幸福》(载《民主与法制》2005年第24期45页)的文章。

  正如二审法院判决书中所认为,吴金艳的防卫行为起因于危及自己和他人人身安全的暴力侵害的发生,防卫意图明显,防卫时间在不法侵害正在进行过程中,防卫对象得当,且未超过必要限度,属于具有无限防卫权类型的正当防卫。这样的明显事实,何以被公安机关执行逮捕(前面还有刑拘)、被检察机关公诉(批准逮捕)、一审被判无罪、检察院抗诉,长达十月之久,这是新刑法中鼓励正当防卫和无过当防卫权立法精神的体现吗?(参见王学堂著《无法不谈:一个法律人的行与思》,海洋出版社,2009年6月第1版,187—191页)

  吴金艳最终无罪的案例尽管让人心酸,但结局还算好的,因为更多被认定了有罪。

  2010年7月25日凌晨,镇江新区大港街头5名男子对两名年轻女子言语挑逗、调戏。两女孩受惊之下躲进“毛胡子大排档”。排档老板戴宏富(绰号“毛胡子”)对尾随而来的男子进行指责,不料遭到殴打,导致头部受伤。于是一气之下,悲剧由此发生。

  法院认为,被告人戴宏富在两名女青年被他人纠缠、骚扰时,能制止对方的不法行为,该行为属见义勇为。但在双方发生争执后,特别是当被害人晓飞用碎啤酒瓶对被告人戴宏富实施侵害后已逃离现场的情况下,作为不法侵害已经结束,被告人戴宏富仍持刀追赶,并出于激愤持刀捅刺被害人晓飞胸、腹部两刀,致被害人晓飞死亡,被告人戴宏富的行为从初始的见义勇为转变成故意伤害对方的行为,故构成故意伤害罪。一审判处其有期徒刑3年,缓刑4年。(2010年12月12日《南方都市报》)

  这样的判决虽然符合法理,但显然对正当防卫认定过苛。我们看到,法院认为:在本案的起因及事态的发展过程中,被害人晓飞一方主动挑衅,损坏被告人戴宏富的财物并先殴打被告人戴宏富,且被害人晓飞用碎啤酒瓶砸中被告人戴宏富头部致其受伤,激怒了被告人戴宏富,从而直接导致了惨案的发生;被告人戴宏富在案发后主动打电话报警,接受公安机关处理,如实供述自己的犯罪事实,系自首,可以对其减轻处罚;在本院审理期间,被告人戴宏富积极赔偿被害人亲属的经济损失及具有较好的认罪、悔罪表现,得到了被害人亲属的谅解。后面这些自首、被害人过错、悔罪、赔偿等理由,纯属法院为了从轻判决而进行的理由说明,其实如果认定其为正当防卫,本不必如此麻烦。

  这样的案件绝非个案。

  2008年4月28日凌晨,河南来京人员宋某尾随从厕所出来的刘某女儿来到刘某暂住地后,欲强行发生性关系。刘某听见女儿的呼叫后,奔向女儿房间,抄起一把凳子就要砸,宋某趁刘某举凳的间隙逃出房间。但气愤的刘某并未罢休,追到马路上,用凳子击打宋某头部,后将宋某带回到自己家门前,用雨伞的把柄继续殴打宋某,刘某妻子与女儿也踢打宋某臀部,被邻居制止后报警。经鉴定,宋某系特急性重型颅脑损伤,构成重伤。宋某因强奸罪被昌平法院判处有期徒刑三年,因伤势严重,经批准监外执行。

  法院认为,刘某故意伤害他人身体,致人重伤,其行为均已构成故意伤害罪,依法应予惩处。故判处刘某有期徒刑4年,赔偿宋某10万余元。

  于是,有网友说,老天爷,让哪个禽兽把这个法官的女儿也强奸了吧!!!

  当然,我们绝对不主张动辄打死强奸犯;但我们一定要确立迅速将强奸犯绳之以法并严惩以安慰被害人的司法机制!

  在上述机制不健全的情况下,正当防卫作为国家赋予公民的一项合法权利,它既不是一种报复,更不是一种惩罚。凡是权利都要有所限制,无限制的权利是特权,而特权是危险的。正当防卫的实质就是“私人执法”(与国家司法权相对应),而公民个人执法的度由于种种原因是很难掌握的(甚至国家执法事实上也存在这种可能)。两利相较取其重,两弊相权取其轻。从利益平衡角度分析,我们对正当防卫还是要严格控制的。

  但严格控制之余,我们仍然不要忘记法律的价值追求。

  法律上这种“无限防卫权”的规定,其本意就是遏制犯罪,鼓励公民同暴力犯罪作斗争。

  因此,在正当防卫的情况下,一般情况下可以免责,毕竟行为人也只是平常人,而且是在特殊的紧急情形下,我们不能苛求他的行为必须恰如其当。法律上这种无限防卫权的规定,其本意就是遏制犯罪,鼓励公民同暴力犯罪作斗争。

  当歹徒实施暴力犯罪时,失手致歹徒死亡一般情况下可以免责,毕竟行为人也只是平常人,而且是在特殊的紧急情形下,我们不能苛求他的行为必须恰如其当。

  在正当防卫和防卫过当之间,我们的法院一直有模糊认识。那就是对正当防卫认定过于机械,事实上在保护坏人,打压好人。要迅速改变对正当防卫苛求过严的不良司法现象。

  美国的上述案例值得我们借鉴!

  A grand jury in Texas has decided not to indict a father who beat to death a man he found allegedly sexually abusing his young daughter.

  “Under the law, deadly force is justified to stop a sexual assault,” Lavaca County District Attorney Heather McMinn said on Tuesday at a press conference announcing the grand jury's decision. “All the evidence presented by the sheriff's department and the Texas Rangers indicated that was in fact what was occurring when the victim's father arrived at the scene.”

  McMinn added: “The substantial amount of evidence showed that the witness statements and the father's statement and what the father had observed was in fact what had happened that day.”

  Jesus Mora Flores was beaten to death on June 9 in Shiner, Texas, after the 23-year-old father allegedly discovered the 47-year-old Flores in a pasture on the family's ranch on top of his 5-year-old daughter with his pants and underwear down. (News organizations, including Yahoo News, are not naming the father in order to protect the identity of his daughter.)

  A witness who saw Flores—a Mexican who legally worked at the ranch—“forcibly carrying” the girl into a secluded area of the property alerted the father, who followed his daughter's screams to the pasture, pulled Flores off her, and “inflicted several blows to the man's head and neck area.”

  After beating Flores, the father called 911.

  “I need an ambulance,” the father told the dispatcher, according to 911 tapes released by police. “This guy was raping my daughter and I beat him up and I don't know what to do. This guy is fixing to die on me, man, and I don't know what to do.”

  “Come on! This guy is going to die on me!” he continued during the frantic, five-minute call. “I don't know what to do!”

  Emergency workers, as well as the daughter's grandfather and aunt, tried to revive Flores but could not. Lavaca County Sheriff Micah Harmon said he found the distraught father crying, saying that he had not intended to kill Flores.

  “He's a peaceable soul,” V'Anne Huser, the father's attorney, said. “He had no intention to kill anybody that day.”

  The case has sparked a debate about whether the killing was justified.

  “There are those ... who feel that as abominable as the actions of Flores were, he did not deserve a death sentence delivered through vigilante justice,” Diane Fanning wrote on Forbes.com. “If I found a half-naked man on top of my 5-year-old daughter, I might not have the strength to kill him. But I do know I would jump on his back and try to rip his eyes right out of his head.”

  A Time magazine reader even suggested “lifetime free passes to Disneyland” should be awarded to the father for protecting his child: “Touch a kid. Die. Done.”

  Local residents in Shiner—which has a population of about 2,000—supported the father, too.

  “I think it was a good decision,” Lamont Matthews told the Victoria (Texas) Advocate. “I would have done the same thing.”

  “The father has gone through enough,” Gail Allen, another resident, told The Associated Press. “The little girl is going to be traumatized for life, and the father, too, for what happened. He was protecting his family. Any parent would do that.”

  “It's sad a man had to die,” Michael James Veit said. “But I think anybody would have done that.”

  “In our opinion,” Huser said Tuesday, “the story is over.”


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